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  1st & 7th  President of Liberia   24th President of Liberia
       Joseph Jenkins Roberts               Madam Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
     1848-1856     /      1872-1876                 2006 to the present
                



                        Past and Present Presidents
                         Of the Republic Of Liberia
            Not in the order of their administrations

cache/wst.opf.4272179.xml


The name of the Anthem: "All Hail Liberia Hail"



Since September 19, 2013

TO STOP THE MUSIC ABOVE Follow the instruction below

                                                               ⬇ TO OPEN, 
          Practice tube                     
  To Close, Click in 
Square on the right where the arrow is pointed.     ⬆TO CLOSE
To stop music click on the square in the black area where the arrow is pointed.
The music will stop and you will enjoy your reading. When you are done and
want to leave the page, just leave the page. The next time you or someone else
comes back to the page, the music will automatically start playing again because
it is looped to play continuously.  


Per capita income  Liberia 1847(Lyrics) Present flag 1860 (Music) (The year the anthem was adopted) THE MAKING OF THE LIBERIAN FLAG According to Liberian History, Seven women made the Liberian flag that has the one star; which we, today, call the Liberin flag. The famous of them is Susanna Lewis who was the Chairlady of the Flag Committee. The other six women included: Sarah Draper from Philadelphia, Mary L. Hunter from South Carolina, Rachel Johnson, Matilda Newport, Mrs. J. B. Russwurm from Baltimore, Maryland, and Collinette Teage Ellis from Virginia. The flag with the one star was hoisted on July 26, 1847, the day Joseph Jenkins Roberts, the first President of Liberia, declared Liberia's independence from the American Colonization Society. August 24, 1847 was declared Flag Day for Liberia. July 26th, Independence Day and August 24th, Flag day. First flag of Liberia, 1827-1847


 
To learn more about this country click here: Liberia


                 Quiz Questions

           

1.       A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF LIBERIA


Who are the Liberian People and where did they all come from?

The history of Liberia does not begin with the American Colonization
Society that funded the expatriation of Black people from America to
the region the  Portuguese named "grain Coast" in 1461. This region
has been inhabited since the 12th century. As we have already learned,
the countries on the West Coast of Africa were named  by European
explorers based upon the economic activities that were taking place
in those particular regions.  There were the: Gold Coast, ( Now Ghana) 
the Ivory Coast, the Slave Coast (Burkina Faso and Dahomey, now Benin) 
and the Grain Coast (now Liberia). The Vai people arrived in the region
by 1510.  The Loma, Bandi, Mende, Mah, Dan and Kpelle are
believed to have arrived about the same time in the 1550's. Where did
these people come from?


These are Mande-speaking people of West Africa that belong to
the Niger-Congo languages.  They expanded westward from Sudan.
As they migrated, they pushed other smaller ethnic groups towards
the south into the forest region. It is believed that the Bassa, Kru (Klao),
Gola and Kissi were among the earliest arrivals in the region. We can
trace this back to about 1375 to 1591 when the great empires of Mali and
Songhai were declining and the northern regions were turning into
desert land. From the dry land that made farming virtually difficult
if not impossible, the people of the Sudanic belt which extends 
from the horn of Africa to the far West Coasts of Africa, there were
movements of people migrating to places with suitable vegetation
where farming will be passible.  Along with them, they brought all
kinds of skills, cotton spinning, clothes and basket weaving, iron smelting, 
rice and vegetable cultivating,  and much more. From the Songhai and
Mali empire, our people brought with them the knowledge of their
social, economic, political and cultural activities which they manefested
in their newly found environment in the Grain and Pepper Coast.

Once our people from the Mali and Songhai empires were getting 
settled, the Portuguese, Dutch and British traders started making contacts
with them for trade.  The Portuguese named the region Costa da Pimenta 
which means Pepper Coast.  In due time, the translation became,
"The Grain Coast."  In this region, there were lots of grain and 
melegueta pepper.  Initially the trade was done as a barter system. 
(you take my goat and I take your gun-powder, buckets and beads).  
As you will discover, the British Pounds and shilling system became
the currency our people used before the coming of the American
Colonization Society ship-loads of black immigrants from America.
The barter trade system gradually changed into African slave trade.
Slavery has existed in Africa long before the coming of the White man.
However, the kind of slevery was basically indentured servants type
of slavery in which the slaves were mere servants.  The slave would 
work for a number of years and them get his freedom. Some slaves 
became members of the household.  This type of slavery was not
dehumanizing. The slaves kept their dignity and personhood intact.
The slaves were domestic servants, or debt bondage, that can be
repaid for freedom. They did not loose their identity nor were they
forced to give up their ethnicities. After serving their time, they
were permitted to return home.

The form of slavery introduced by the Americans and Europeans was basically chattel slavery in which people were treated as property to be 
bought and sold in the market place to the highest bidder.  In chattel 
slavery, the Africans were forced to give up their identity, and their
ethnicities.  They were separated from their children, wives, and 
other closed relatives.  In chattel slavery, the slaves were beaten, abused
and ill-treated.  They were dehumanized and treated as animals.


By 1562 , the British started capturing African people in the region. 
The slaves were traded to people in the new world. By 1816,
it has been declared in some parts of the world that slavery was no
longer acceptable.  Some freed slaves were no longer interested in 
living in America.  Moreover, slave owners did not want black people
in their country.  They wanted to send them back to the continent
from which they have been captured.  An American colonization
Society was formed in the USA as a humanitarian society to help
repatriate the freed African slaves back to Africa.  This was around 1816.
By 1817 and 1818, Samuel John Mills, an American missionary of 
Connecticut, helped to form the American Colonization Society (ACS).
He along with a few others went to buy land on the west coast of 
Africa for the ACS but he died at sea on his way back, but his plans
of establishing a colony in Africa were then realized.  Some names like
Samuel Bacon, Eli Ayres, Robert Finley, Daniel Coker, and others were associated with the ACS activities.  Ships were built to transport the freed slaves back under the auspices of the ACS.  There were the Mayflower,
the 
USS Alligator, the Elizabeth, the Augusta, the Nautilus, USS Cyane, steamship "Horsa" and steamship Laurada. The USS Alligator ship was
used to transport
Dr. Eli Ayres, a represntative of the ASC to Africa.  
He first went
 by way of London and then finally went to the Grain Coast
to buy
 the land for the settlers. Along with him came Lt. Robert Field Stockton, the captain of the ship.  Many more like these men, came under
the
 support of the ACS and established a colony on the Grain Coast and
named the country, Liberia.  The word comes from the Latin word,
"liber" which means "free".

Some of the reasons given by the Black Americans for wanting to
leave America to go to Africa in search of a home and a country of
their own are the following:

_________________________
Some Reasons Why Blacks from America came seeking a home in Africa.

1. In some parts of that country (the United States) we were debared
by law from all rights and privileges of men:
2. In other parts sentiments more powerful than law frowned us down;
3. We were everywhere shut out from all civil office;
4. We were taxed without our consent;
5. We were excluded from all participation in the government;
6. We were compelled to contribute to the resources of the country
which gave us no protection;
7. We were made a separete and distinct class and against us every
avenue to improvement was effectually closed;
8. Strangers from all lands of a color different from ours were preferred before us;
9. We uttered our complaints but they were unattended;
10. All hopes of a favorable change in our country was thus
extinguished in our bosoms, and we looked with anxiety
abroad for some asylum from the deep degradation.



Should the Motto of Liberia be changed? "The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here"
My questions are, do you still feel that the Motto should remain as it is or do you want it changed to something else? If you want it changed to some other statement, what statement will you suggest that will be appropriate, that will refer to all citizens of Liberia equally?
The Coat of Arms of Liberia Above is the coat of arms of Liberia. On the coat of arms the motto of the country is written: "The Love Of Liberty brought us here." In spite of the fact that Liberia comprises multiple ethnicities, for many years, the country was divided into two social stratifications: On the one hand, there were the indigenous population that made up 95% of the population that were always referred to as "the country people," "indigenous people" "native people" or "country people" and "aborigines." On the other hand, you had the Americo-Liberians (those whose descendents came on the Mayflower or the ship Elizabeth on which Elijah Johnson traveled) and the Congor people who were the recaptured slaves that may have probably come on the USS Alligitor. (The USS Alligator) was used primarily for combatting the slave trade off the coast of Africa. Along with other ships, the USS Alligator patrolled the shoes of West Africa in an attempt to curtail illegal slave trading. Therefore, it is likely that recaptured slaves were loaded on the Alligator and transported to Liberia. At any rate, there has been a mounting contention amongst Liberians that the Motto: The Love of Liberty Brought Us Here" directly relates to the Congors and the Americo-Liberians because they were the only emigrants to the region. If we look at the bigger picture, we will discover that almost all of us at some point in our history, have migrated to the region. Almost all Liberians are immigrant people who at some point in our history, have migrated to this region because of the LOVE OF LIBERTY. Liberty from oppressive regime of the Mali an Songhai Empire, liberty from the starvation of the land that was turning into desert, liberty from regions that could no longer sustain our agricultural style of living, and liberty for other life crisis that brought us to the region. Therefore, in a larger context, The Love of Liberty brought us here speaks not only to the US migrants, it speaks to the situations of all of us that have migrated to the place we now call Liberia, our home. QUESTIONS My questions are, do you still feel that the Motto should remain as it is or do you want it changed to something else? If you want it changed to some other statement, what statement will you suggest that will be appropriate, that will refer to all citizens of Liberia equally? Should the National Anthem be changed? ____________________________ 2. Liberia gained her independence from the American Colonization Society in 1847. At that time, the Liberian National Anthem was adopted. It was written by Daniel Bashiel Warner (1815-1880). Daniel B. Warner was the third President of Liberia. The music to the Anthem was actually adopted in 1860. Someone from Liberia was suggesting the other day that the Anthem needs to be amended or rewritten. He felt that the phrase "We'll shout the freedom, of a race benighted" be changed. His justification for the suggestion was that, Liberians are not benighted. Meaning, ignorant or backward. The phrase has no place in our National Anthem. I quickly pointed out to him that the document was a 19th century document that spoke of its time and of the realites of the black race at the time. Some other persons reaffirmed the fact that even today, most of our people are benighted because of the lack of opportunities. I, including many others do not see a real need for changing the Liberian National Anthem.
__________ To try to change the anthem just because of that phrase will be missing the point. For the past month and a half, I have worked on different anthems from all the African countries, and all of them speak concretely in reference to their existential situations at the time the anthems were written. If we try to change the 19th century information imbeded in our anthem, others will also insist that the one star in the blue field on our flag must also be changed because we are no longer the only independent country in Africa.   But that is a historical document that really needs no change at this time.
____________
There are some historical documents that must remain as they are.  For example, under the title, Some Reasons Why Blacks from America Came Seeking a Home in Africa, I listed some of the reasons that forced the freed slaves to come searching for a home outside of the USA.  They were not permitted to participate in the government they supported. They paid taxes without their consent. They were barred from entering certain public places, etc.   But realities have changed so much that there is now a black president in the white house.  Does that mean that we should discard that docucment because blacks have become involved in the social, political and economic fabric of the American society? No. Such national issues about changing the flag, or the constitution or the national anthem or even the coat of arms will require a national referendum or a plebiscite.
____________
My questions are: On account of that phrase or any other phrase in the Anthem, should the Anthem be changed or altered? What will you suggest that those changes be? What will you change the word benighted for (and still have the same tune with the 4/4 beat to the measure in the song)? What other words will you want to change? If it is not spoiled, we should not try to fix it. Was Liberia Ever Colonized? ______________________________________ 3. There has been another debate about whether or not, Liberia has ever been colonized. Some insist that Liberia is the only African country that has never been colonized. From my reading, I gathered that in the 1700's to the 1800's when some freed slaves in America wanted to have a country of their own, the ACS was formed to send freed-African-Americans to Africa as an alternative to freeing them and let them roam all over America. By 1867, the ACS has sent over 13,000 emigrants. The organization that brought the emigrants was called AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. Those emigrants came as a "colony" even though the Liberian "colony" was not controlled by a foreign country "America" yet, it was under the control of a colonizing society. The Monroe doctrine prohibited America from taking control of any country inside or outside of the western hamisphere and that any nation that tries to interfere with North or South America would be viewed as an act of aggression. James Monore was America's 5th president whose name the capital city of Liberia bears--Monrovia in honor of President James Monroe. The type of colonizing of Liberia may not resemble the same style of colonizing as carried out by the Belgium, British, Portuguese, French and Germans, but Liberia was colonized by the ACS. And it is the ACS from which Liberia got her independence. If Liberia had not been colonized, she would not have had a day called Independence. A country can never call a day of independence when it has not been under any outside control. Great Britain, for example sense of independence day is not the same as a country like the USA or Ghana or Kenya celebrating a day that it freed itself from a yoke of colonialism. Joesph Jenkins Roberts, originally born in Virginia, declared July 26, 1847 as Liberia's Independence day from the group of people from the United States of America represented by the American Colonization Society. America did not even recognize Liberia's independence until several countries like France, and Great Britian have recognized Liberia's day of independence. Liberia was not directly under the control of the United States of America, but some very powerful people controlled the ACS under which Liberia was. Some of those powerful people included but not limitted to: James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Daniel Webster, Francis Scott Key, Eli Ayres, who appointed some of the key people of the ACS, and many others. Samuel Bacon was appointed the principal agent of the United States government. To him was given the United States Congress adoption instructions in 1819. Samuel Crozer, in the same year, 1819, was appointed the first agent of the ACS. These people preferred to take black people away and carry them into a far away country across the Atlantic Ocean, instead of integrating them into the United States Society. ____ In 1822, it was Rev. Jehudi Ashman and others that negotiated with the indigenous people for some land for the freed American slaves to settle and call their home. Eli Ayres and Robert Stockton were able to acquire Cape Mesurado from the Mahnbahn and Dei rulers. After acquiring the land, they hoisted the American flag on the land to authenticate their possession of Dazoa Island and Mesurado region. The settlers did not meet "flowry beds of ease." This was the beginning of conflict between the indigenous people and the settlers who just arrived and settled on Cape Mesurado and tried to make this their permanent settlement. This was their first major armed conflect of many other conflicts that were to be experienced in other parts of the country they have come to establish. After this point, there were several wars and conflicts between the indigenous people and the settlers. In 1893, there was the Dei-Gola War in which Liberia sided with the Gola ethnic people. This was Liberia's first attempt to mediate between ethnic waring factions. The next conflict in which the settlers again were involved is when the Kru Conferdation attacked the Sinoe County settlement in 1856. The colony of Maryland and the Grebo Confederation were drawn into a serious war over land and settlement. In 1875, The G'debo Kingdom confronted the Liberian government which resulted into yet, another war. Grebo is also known as G'debo, Gedebo, or Glebo. There was a constant conflict between the Grebos and the settlers. In 1893 again, there was another conflict in Maryland between the indigenous people and the settlers. In 1910 again, there was the Grebo war with the settlers concerning land, settlement and taxes. In this conflict, the Liberian Frontier Force and American cruisers Birmingham and Des Moines were involved. __________ With the support of people like Chief Bob Gray, Elijah Johnson and others of the ACS were able to negotiate for land and sign treaties of amity, trade and the right to do other things within the framework of nation building. Some of these treaties were signed in 1824 and 1834. In due time, the ACS expanded and acquired territories beyond the coastal regions. In later years, the American Colonization Society laid claims to a larger territory within the hinterlands. SOME OF THE WAYS BY WHICH LAND WAS ACQUIRED This quotation maybe helpful: Here is a treaty between the American Colonization Society and the African Kings. . [In the Library of Congress, in the session on Liberia early History], May 11, 1825 Holograph American Colonization Society Collection Manuscript Division (4) you will find this quotation;

Jehudi Ashmun envisioned an American empire in Africa. During 1825 and 1826, Ashmun took steps to lease, annex, or buy tribal lands along the coast and on major rivers leading inland. Like his predecessor Lt. Robert Stockton, who in 1821 persuaded African King Peter to sell Cape Montserado (or Mesurado) by pointing a pistol at his head, Ashmun was prepared to use force to extend the colony's territory. His aggressive actions quickly increased Liberia's power over its neighbors. In this treaty of May 1825, King Peter and other native kings agreed to sell land in return for 500 bars of tobacco, three barrels of rum, five casks of powder, five umbrellas, ten iron posts, and ten pairs of shoes, among other items.

If you to go this site, you will see the actual treaty

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html#obj3 Or click on this ACS and the Native Signed Treaty.

_________ Even though France, that colonized the Guinea territory, was always taking portions of Liberia's territories and adding them unto Guinea, the ACS managed to acquire a sizeable portion. It is believed that all the territories from Liberia up to Nzérékoré were originally parts of Liberia. These are the places Guineans refer to as la région de forȇt, meaning, forest region. Some of the places that were once Liberia that were taken by the French include, but not limited to: Yomau, Lola, Nzérékoré, Macenta and Beyla. Liberia never made much efforts to reclaim those areas after the 1892 treaty with France when the border between Liberia and Guinea was established. The French were happy to take possession of Liberia's land and add it on to Guinea. It was not only the French people who were stealing land from Liberia, the British, on May 18th, 1885, took the Gallinas Territory by force and annexed it to Sierra Leone just as the French have done in taking Liberia's land and annexing it to Guinea. The Queen of England defined the boundaries of the portions of the Gallinas Territory, took most of Liberia's territories. ________ Bob Gray, was a Bassa Chief who cooperated with the settlers and gave them protection and even signed a treaty of friendship with them in 1834. Bob Gray's friends, Yellow Will and Joe Harris did not like any relationship with the settlers. There are some other names of indigenous people who were involved in these discussions at different times: King Long Peter, King Zoda, King George, Boatswain, King Sherbro, and Kizell, just to name a few. ________ My question is: One of the ACS land negotiators, after acquiring the land, made the following statement: "For two long years, I have sought a home, here I have found one and here will I remain." Who said that? ________________________________________________________ Liberia's Ethnicities _____________________________________________ 4. Diedrich Westermann, Sir. Harry Johnson, and Migeod, all agree on the classification of the languages spoken in Liberia. They have divided the languages into four groups: 1. Mandɛ-fu - group of languages includes the following: Loma, Gbundɛ, Gbandɛ, Mendɛ, Kpɛllɛ, Mãh and Dãn. 2. Mandɛ-tan - group of languages includes the following: Vai and Malinke. 3. West Atlantic - group of lanuages includes the following: Kissi and Gola [This group is considered most likely the original language group of West Africa]. 4. Kru or Klao - Group of languages includes the following: Kru, Bassa, Grebo, Dɛ, Gbɛ, Half-Grebo, Tiɛ, Sapã and Sikon.
Where on this map will you place each of those Ethnic groups above? The First Coup d'état in Liberia--1871 (Non-Military) The Second Coup d'état in Liberia--1980 (Military) 5. When the military coup d'état took place in Liberia, most people kept saying that that was the first coup that has ever taken place in Liberia. In reality, The coup under Samuel K. Doe was the second coup in Liberia. The first coup happened in 1871. Edward James Roye, President of Liberia from 1870-1871. E. J. Roye was a very corrupt president. When Liberia received its first foreign loan from a British financier, Roye is said to have stolen the money. As the story goes, Roye wanted to reconstruct some roads and needed some money. He negotiated with some banks in London for some loan. The interest rate was 7%. Roye did not get confirmation from the legislature. He hurriedly got the money that was worth over $90,000.00. At the time, bonds were issued $400,000.00. As a result, he was disposed from the office of the presidency. His Vice President, James S. Smith became his replacement for the presidency. The over throw of E. J. Roye was a bloodless coup. Doe's coup was a bloody coup. Roye was in office for only one year. The story about his death is that he was killed on February 11th, or 12th, 1872. Another version of the story states that Roye drowned as he attempted to reach a British ship in Monrovia on February 12, 1872. Legend has it that E. J. Roye was determined to escape from Liberia on a British ship, but the ship did not come on time. When it finally came, news was already around that he was just about to leave town. But he waited too long for the British ship. This is why in Liberia, you may hear some people say, "wait, wait, killed Roye." E. J. Roye was of an Igbo heritage and born in Newark, Ohio. He was a Black American. ________ MY QUESTIONS ARE: What will you suggest to the Liberian people about any corruption in Liberia? Should what happened to E. J. Roye happen to every corrupt Presdent? Should that be a a constitutional stipulation to dispose of all Liberian leaders who become corrupt in office? Yes or No. Give your Reasons for your answer.
______________ 6. What  year was the Liberian National Anthem adopted?  When was the music adopted?
And what is the Name of the National Anthem?  Who composed it?
Lyrics by_____________Music by_____________
Since when did they start using the Anthem?  19____?  
Adoption     
a. 1847     
b. 1860     
c. 1944     
d. 1896     
e.  1818     
f. None of the Above
g.    The Name of the National Anthem___________

7. What was Liberia's GDP (Gross Domestic Product) for 2012?

8. Can you identify each county's flag? Which flag belongs to each county? Scroll down to the bottom of this page and you will see the county flags.       ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9.    What is the political structure of Liberia. Since the independence of Liberia, it has had how many political parties, and at what specific times in history.          1 0. Which Religion do most of the people of Liberia adhere to and what percentage of the population practices it? a.     African Traditional Religions?_______% b. Christianity--Which Brand of Christianity?____% 1. Roman Catholic__________% 2. Protestant___________% 3. Eastern Orthodox________% c. Islam______________% d. Hinduism__________% e. Buddhism__________% f. Judaism____________%

_____________________________________________________________________

SOURCES:

Courtesy of Nationalanthems.info

“Canada » nationalanthems.info.” Accessed August 5, 2013) .          http://www.nationalanthems.info/ca.htm.

   Google

Wikipedia

Complete National-Anthems-World-Edition-2013
Slovak State Philharmonic Orchestra Kosice
Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra

          National anthems of the world Nationalhymnen der Welt. Free download

  The World Atlas

                         Additional sources for the Study on Liberia:

Carey, Robert, and Furbay, John (1999).  Freedom Ships:The Spectacular
African Americans who dared to find their Freedom Long Before Emancipation.  

Dunn, D. Elwood, Beyan, Amos J. Beyan, Burrows, Carl Patrick (2001)
Historical Dictionary of Liberia second edition .  African series # 83

Latimer, Elizabeth Wormeley, (1895).  Europe In Africa in the
Nineteenth Century.


Redkey, Edwin S. (1969), Black Exodus: Black Nationalist and Back
to Africa Movements, 1890-1910.

Tarikh : Modernisers in Africa Vol 1 No. 4. (1977).  
Article by
Abeodus B. Jones,  Department of States, Monrovia, Liberia.  
"Joseph Jenkins Robert: First President of Liberia."

 Taryor, Nya Kwiawon, (2010).  Mãh Wè Mìndàn Kìì:  Learning to 
Speak the Mah Language of Nimba County, Liberia, West Africa.

____________________________________________


Lyrics [edit source | editbeta]

All hail, Liberia, hail! (All hail!)
All hail, Liberia, hail! (All hail!)
This glorious land of liberty,
Shall long be ours.
Though new her name,
Green be her fame,
And mighty be her powers,
And mighty be her powers.
In joy and gladness,
With our hearts united,
We'll shout the freedom,
Of a race benighted.
Long live Liberia, happy land!
A home of glorious liberty,
By God's command!
A home of glorious liberty,
By God's command!

All hail, Liberia, hail! (All hail!)
All hail, Liberia, hail! (All hail!)
In union strong success is sure.
We cannot fail!
With God above,
Our rights to prove,
We will o'er all prevail,
We will o'er all prevail!
With heart and hand our country's cause defending,
We'll meet the foe with valour unpretending.
Long live Liberia, happy land!
A home of glorious liberty,
By God's command!
A home of glorious liberty,
By God's command!

_____________________________________


 




 !
cache/wst.opf.4242721.xml

    Which flag belongs
         to which county?
          Can you identify  the
            flag of your county?

How many counties are
there in Liberia?


     Now that you have the               names of all the flags
  from the different counties
     in Liberia, can you state
     how many county flags
        you are looking at?


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